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Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls measured during the 2008 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

WU Xiaoguo1,2,3, James C W Lam3, XIA Chonghuan1,2,3, KANG Hui1,XIE Zhouqing1,2* & Paul K S Lam2,3   

  1. 1 Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China;
    2 Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology (ALERT), University of Science and Technology of China−City University of Hong Kong (USTC−CityU) Joint Advanced Research Center, Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, SIP, Suzhou 215123, China;
    3 State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution; and Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
  • 出版日期:1965-09-30 发布日期:1965-09-30

Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls measured during the 2008 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

WU Xiaoguo1,2,3, James C W Lam3, XIA Chonghuan1,2,3, KANG Hui1,XIE Zhouqing1,2* & Paul K S Lam2,3   

  1. 1 Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China;
    2 Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology (ALERT), University of Science and Technology of China−City University of Hong Kong (USTC−CityU) Joint Advanced Research Center, Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, SIP, Suzhou 215123, China;
    3 State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution; and Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
  • Online:1965-09-30 Published:1965-09-30

摘要: From July to September 2008, air samples were collected aboard the R/V XUE LONG icebreaker (Snow Dragon) as part of the 2008 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition program. Σ20PCBs in the atmosphere ranged from 6.20 to 365 pg?m−3 with average concentration 117±107 pg?m−3. Congener profiles in all samples showed a prevalence of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls, dominated by PCB-18, PCB-28, PCB-44 and PCB-52. Along the cruise, the highest concentration was observed over the Sea of Japan and the lowest over the high-latitude Arctic Ocean. Air mass backward trajectories indicated that samples with relatively high levels of PCBs might have been influenced by atmospheric transport of these chemicals from primary and/or secondary sources. PCB-18 displayed a significant correlation between vapor pressure and ambient temperature along the cruise, but there was no such correlation between gas-phase concentration and latitude. This suggests that atmospheric PCB-18 was related to volatilization from the earth surface during summer 2008, during which temperatures were relatively high. PCB-52 presented a significant correlation between gas-phase concentration and latitude, but no such correlation was found between vapor pressure and ambient temperature, indicating that atmospheric PCB-52 detected during the cruise might be attributed directly to atmospheric transport from source regions. In the Arctic, levels of PCB-52 in the floating sea ice region were higher than those measured in the open sea area and pack ice region. Intense ice retreat during summer 2008 might have enhanced the volatilization of previously accumulated PCBs from sea ice, especially those with heavier molecular weight and lower vapor pressure such as PCB-52.

关键词: PCBs, North Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean, air, sea ice

Abstract: From July to September 2008, air samples were collected aboard the R/V XUE LONG icebreaker (Snow Dragon) as part of the 2008 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition program. Σ20PCBs in the atmosphere ranged from 6.20 to 365 pg?m−3 with average concentration 117±107 pg?m−3. Congener profiles in all samples showed a prevalence of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls, dominated by PCB-18, PCB-28, PCB-44 and PCB-52. Along the cruise, the highest concentration was observed over the Sea of Japan and the lowest over the high-latitude Arctic Ocean. Air mass backward trajectories indicated that samples with relatively high levels of PCBs might have been influenced by atmospheric transport of these chemicals from primary and/or secondary sources. PCB-18 displayed a significant correlation between vapor pressure and ambient temperature along the cruise, but there was no such correlation between gas-phase concentration and latitude. This suggests that atmospheric PCB-18 was related to volatilization from the earth surface during summer 2008, during which temperatures were relatively high. PCB-52 presented a significant correlation between gas-phase concentration and latitude, but no such correlation was found between vapor pressure and ambient temperature, indicating that atmospheric PCB-52 detected during the cruise might be attributed directly to atmospheric transport from source regions. In the Arctic, levels of PCB-52 in the floating sea ice region were higher than those measured in the open sea area and pack ice region. Intense ice retreat during summer 2008 might have enhanced the volatilization of previously accumulated PCBs from sea ice, especially those with heavier molecular weight and lower vapor pressure such as PCB-52.

Key words: PCBs, North Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean, air, sea ice