极地研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (1): 1-12.DOI: 10.13679/j.jdyj.20180032

• 研究论文 •    下一篇

东南极威尔克斯地-阿德利地大陆边缘构造及沉积特征

王春阳1, 2  丁巍伟1, 2  董崇志1, 2  方银霞1, 2  赵阳慧1, 2  牛雄伟1, 2   

  1. 1国家海洋局海底科学重点实验室, 浙江 杭州 310012; 
    2 自然资源部第二海洋研究所, 浙江 杭州 310012
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-24 修回日期:2018-08-01 出版日期:2019-03-30 发布日期:2019-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 王春阳
  • 基金资助:

    南北极环境综合考察与评估专项(CHINARE2016-01-07,CHINARE2016-04-02)、国家海洋局基本科研业务费专项资金项目(JG1607)、国家海洋局全球变化与海气相互作用专项(GASI-GEOGE-1)、国家海洋局极地考察办公室对外合作支持项目(NO.201610)、中国海洋发展研究会和中国海洋发展中心资助项目“南极外大陆架划界问题研究”(CAMAJJ201702)资助

Tectonic and sedimentary characteristics of the Wilkes Land and Terre Adélie continental margin, East Antarctica

Wang Chunyang1, 2, Ding Weiwei1, 2, Dong Chongzhi1, 2, Fang Yinxia1, 2, Zhao Yanghui1, 2, Niu Xiongwei1,2     

  • Received:2018-05-24 Revised:2018-08-01 Online:2019-03-30 Published:2019-03-30

摘要:

东南极威尔克斯地-阿德利地陆缘是研究南极洲-澳大利亚晚白垩世裂解过程的关键部位, 然而该地区的地质情况研究程度较低, 特别是在构造-沉积演化方面。基于横穿威尔克斯地-阿德利地大陆边缘多道地震剖面的解释, 对该地区的构造变形及沉积特征进行了研究。在地震剖面上识别出区域性的两大不整合面, 分别是土伦阶不整合面(tur)和始新世不整合面(eoc)。两大不整合面将研究区层序划分为三大构造层序: 裂谷层序S3, 后裂谷层序S2、S1。裂谷层序主要为裂谷期的火山碎屑岩, 后裂谷层序多为半深海浊流沉积物如淤泥、黏土等。地震剖面解释发现, 研究区不同部位构造变形及沉积特征差异显著, 威尔克斯地西部S3较少发育, 只在陆坡坡脚向深海盆地过渡的局部区域发育, 而发育了厚层的S2、S1; 威尔克斯地东部发育了厚层的S3, 且S3内部普遍发育高角度正断层。阿德利地发育了一明显的裂谷地块——“阿德利地裂谷地块”, 其为裂谷作用下从大陆边缘裂离至深海区的海底高原, 在其陆缘一侧可能发育了大型的控制断陷的正断层。威尔克斯地-阿德利地陆缘构造变形的差异可能是由于南极洲-澳大利亚板块裂解过程中发生逆时针旋转, 导致陆缘裂谷作用强度不均所形成。威尔克斯地-阿德利地陆缘在洋-陆过渡带(Continent-Ocean Transition, COT)内发育了岩浆成因的基底凸脊, 这些凸脊可能是在早期裂谷作用时, 在地壳减薄最强烈处地幔物质上涌并遇水蛇纹石化的结果, 并且导致了COT内的磁异常。

关键词: 东南极, 威尔克斯地-阿德利地陆缘, 构造变形, 沉积特征, 地震剖面解释

Abstract:

The continental margin of Wilkes Land and Terre Adélie, East Antactic, occupies a key position for understanding the separation process of Australia and Antarctica in the Late Cretaceous. However, the geology of this area is still poorly understood, especially in the structural-sedimentary evolution. Based on the interpretation of multi-channel seismic profiles across the Wilkes Land and Terre Adélie continental margin, the characteristics of structure and sedimentation in this area are studied. Two regional unconformities are recognized in the seismic profiles, named tur unconformity and eoc unconformity, respectively. Three structural units, rift sequence S3, post-rift sequences S2 and S1, are divided by the two unconformities. The S3 is mostly constituted by syn-rift volcaniclastic rock and fault titled volcanics. On the contrary, hemipelagic turbidity sediments, ooze mud and clay comprise the post-rift sequences S2 and S1. The structural deformation characteristics of different parts of Wilkes Land Terre Adélie continental margin vary dramatically. In western Wilkes Land, S3 was limited and rarely developed in the transition region of slope to deep-sea basin while thick S2 and S1 deposited. In eastern Wilkes Land, thick S3 was deposited and many high angle normal faults developed. The deformation of Terre Adélie was characterized by the development of Adélie Rift Block which was a submarine plateau detached from the continental margin and a major boundary normal fault may developed in the continental side of the block. The differences in structural deformation among the west and east Wilkes Land, Terre Adélie, may due to the heterogeneities of rifting The continental margin of Wilkes Land and Terre Adélie, East Antarctic, occupies a key position for understanding the separation process of Australia and Antarctica in the Late Cretaceous. However, the geology of this area is still poorly understood, especially in the structural-sedimentary evolution. Based on the interpretation of multi-channel seismic profiles across the Wilkes Land and Terre Adélie continental margin, the characteristics of structure and sedimentation in this area were studied. Two regional unconformities were recognized in the seismic profiles, named tur unconformity and eoc unconformity. Three structural units, rift sequence S3 and post-rift sequences S2 and S1, were divided by the two unconformities. The S3 is mostly constituted by syn-rift volcaniclastic rock and fault titled volcanics. Conversely, hemipelagic turbidity sediment, ooze mud, and clay comprise the post-rift sequences S2 and S1. The structural deformation characteristics of the different parts of the Wilkes Land and Terre Adélie continental margin varied dramatically. In western Wilkes Land, S3 was limited and rarely developed in the transition region of the slope to deep-sea basin while thick S2 and S1 were deposited. In eastern Wilkes Land, thick S3 was deposited, and many high angle normal faults developed. The deformation of Terre Adélie was characterized by the development of the Adélie Rift Block, which was a submarine plateau detached from the continental margin. A major boundary normal fault may have developed on the continental side of the block. The differences in structural deformation between the west and east Wilkes Land and Terre Adélie might attribute to the heterogeneities of rifting resulting from the anticlockwise rotation of the Australia plate during the separation with the Antarctic. On the seismic profiles, basement ridges in the COT(Continent-Ocean Transition) area were clearly recognized. These basement ridges may be serpentinized peridotite formed by mantle intrusion in the crust extension area, which resulted in the magnetic anomaly in the COT.which results from the anticlockwise rotation of Australia plate during the separation with Antarctic. In the seismic profiles, basement ridges in the COT area were clearly recognized. These basement ridges may be the serpentinized peridotite formed by the mantle intrusion in the most crust extension area, which resulted in the magnetic anomaly in the COT.

Key words: East Antarctica, continental margin of Wilkes Land and Terre Adélie, structural deformation, sedimentary characteristics, seismic interpretation