极地研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 1-12.DOI: 10.13679/j.jdyj.20190002

• 研究论文 •    下一篇

南北极海冰变化及其影响因素的对比分析

柯长青,金鑫,沈校熠,李萌萌   

  1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 江苏 南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-07 修回日期:2019-02-20 出版日期:2020-03-30 发布日期:2020-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 柯长青
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点研发计划(2018YFC1407200, 2018YFC1407203)、国家自然科学基金(41976212)资助

Comparison of Antarctic and Arctic sea ice variations and their impact factors

Ke Changqing, Jin Xin, Shen Xiaoyi, Li Mengmeng   

  1. School of Geographic & Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2019-01-07 Revised:2019-02-20 Online:2020-03-30 Published:2020-03-30

摘要:

海冰是海洋-大气交互系统的重要组成部分, 与全球气候系统间存在灵敏的响应和反馈机制。本文选用欧洲空间局发布的1992—2008年海冰密集度数据分析了南北极海冰在时间和空间上的变化规律与趋势, 并结合由美国环境预报中心(National Centers for Environmental Prediction, NCEP)和美国大气研究中心(National Center for Atmospheric Research, NCAR)联合制作的NCEP/NCAR气温数据和ENSO指数探讨了南北极海冰变化的影响因素。结果表明, 北极海冰面积呈明显的减少趋势, 其中夏季海冰最小月的减少更快。北冰洋中央海盆区、巴伦支海、喀拉海、巴芬湾和拉布拉多海的减少最明显。南极海冰面积呈微弱增加趋势, 罗斯海、太平洋扇区和大西洋扇区的海冰增加。北极海冰面积与气温有显著的滞后1个月的负相关关系(P<0.01)。北极升温显著, 北冰洋中央海盆区、喀拉海、巴伦支海、巴芬湾和楚科奇海升温趋势最大, 海冰减少很明显。南极在南大西洋、南太平洋呈降温趋势, 海冰增加。北极海冰减少与39个月之后ONI的下降、40个月之后SOI的上升密切相关; 南极海冰增加与7个月之后ONI的下降、6个月之后SOI的上升存在很好的响应关系。南北极海冰变化与三次ENSO的强暖与强冷事件有很好的对应关系。

关键词: 海冰, 密集度, 面积, 气温, ENSO, 南北极

Abstract:

Sea ice is an important component of the ocean–atmosphere system, and forms part of the sensitive response and feedback mechanisms in the global climate system. In this paper, spatio-temporal variations and trends of Antarctic and Arctic sea ice were analyzed using sea ice concentration data from 1992 to 2008 obtained from European Space Agency. Combining these data with NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction)/NCAR(National Center for Atmospheric Research) air temperatures and ENSO indices, impact factors of sea ice variation were calculated. Results indicate that Arctic sea ice exhibits a statistically significant trend of −6.88×104 km2·a−1; sea ice concentration during the month of minimum sea ice cover in summer has been changing at an even higher rate of −10.18×104 km2·a–1. The highest and most statistically significant trends are found in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Baffin Bay and Labrador Sea (generally exceeding −1.2%·a−1). Antarctic sea ice exhibits a small trend (below +0.5%·a−1) that is not statistically significant. Sea ice concentration has increased in the Ross Sea and the South Pacific and South Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean. Correlations between air temperature and sea ice cover with a lag of 1 month are negative and statistically significant. Trends in air temperature increase are statistically significant in the Arctic; the largest magnitudes are found in the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay, Kara Sea, Barents Sea, and the Chukchi Sea where sea ice has decreased considerably. However, in the Antarctic, air temperature decreased in the South Pacific and South Atlantic sectors where sea ice has increased slightly. Arctic sea ice decrease is highly correlated with decreasing ONI with a lag of 39 months and increasing SOI with a lag of 40 months. Antarctic sea ice increase is highly correlated with decreasing ONI with a lag of 7 months and increasing SOI with a lag of 6 months. There is a strong correspondence between polar sea ice variations and three strong warm and cold ENSO events.

Key words: sea ice, concentration, area, air temperature, ENSO, Antarctica/Arctic