极地研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (2): 140-150.DOI: 10.13679/j.jdyj.20190031

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

北极区域构造对沉积盆地演化的控制作用

王哲1,2, 李学杰1,2 汪俊1,2 杨楚鹏1,2 姚永坚1,2 鞠东1,2   

  1. 1.广州海洋地质调查局, 广东 广州 510760;
    2.自然资源部海底矿产资源重点实验室, 广东 广州 510760
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-12 修回日期:2019-10-11 出版日期:2020-06-30 发布日期:2020-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 杨楚鹏
  • 基金资助:
    中国地质调查局科研项目(DD20190577, DD20190368, DD20190366)资助

Tectonic control on the evolution of Arctic sedimentary basins

Wang Zhe1,2, Li Xuejie1,2, Wang Jun1,2, Yang Chupeng1,2, Yao Yongjian1,2, Ju Dong1,2   

  1. 1.Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou 510760, China;
    2.Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources, MNR, Guangzhou 510760, China
  • Received:2019-06-12 Revised:2019-10-11 Online:2020-06-30 Published:2020-06-30

摘要:

北极地区众多沉积盆地的演化受控于漫长地质历史过程中的复杂区域构造作用。利用环北极编图计划重磁资料对现今北极基底构造格局进行识别,并将其与沉积盆地空间分布进行叠合,在综述北极主要沉积盆地演化序列事件基础上,归纳出三类对北极沉积盆地演化起主控作用的区域构造因素,包括:(1)后造山伸展垮塌;(2)地体增生前陆收缩;(3)洋盆扩张作用。此三类区域构造作用之后的构造事件对盆地的重塑力有限,使盆地性质大致得以延续。新元古代至显生宙时期劳伦、波罗的、西伯利亚古陆相继碰撞形成了蒂曼、加里东、埃尔斯米尔、乌拉尔造山带,经历后碰撞期伸展垮塌成为巴伦支、喀拉、加拿大北极群岛等区域的大型沉积盆地的基底。现今西伯利亚东北部和北美西北部的北太平洋边缘地体新生代演化导致其北侧发育前陆收缩盆地。美亚海盆和北大西洋-欧亚海盆洋盆扩张作用控制了马更些三角洲、巴芬湾及拉普捷夫海裂谷盆地的演化。

关键词: 北极, 沉积盆地, 区域构造, 基底, 造山作用

Abstract: The evolution of sedimentary basins in the Arctic is controlled by complex tectonic processes over geological time. Using gravity and magnetic data from the Circum-Arctic Mapping Project, the tectonic framework of the Arctic basement was identified and overlapped with the distribution of sedimentary basins. Three types of regional tectonic factors that play a dominant role in the evolution of Arctic sedimentary basins were selected: (1) post-orogenic extensional collapse; (2) terrane accretion and foreland contraction; (3) rifting and opening of ocean basins. The tectonic events after these three types of regional tectonism have limited abilities to reshape basins; therefore, the characteristics of the basins basically remained constant. From the Neoproterozoic to the Phanerozoic, the Laurentia, Baltic and Siberia paleocontinents collided one after another to form the Tieman, Caledonian, Ellesmere and Ural orogenic belts. During the post-collision period, they extended and collapsed to form the base of large sedimentary basins in the Barents, Kara, Canadian Arctic seas and other regions. The Cenozoic evolution of the North Pacific margin terrane in northeastern Siberia and northwestern North America led to the development of foreland basins in the north. The rifting and opening of the Amerasia Basin and the North Atlantic-Eurasian Basin controlled the evolution of the Mackenzie Delta, Baffin Bay and the Laptev Rift Basin.

Key words: Arctic, sedimentary basins, regional tectonics, basement, orogeny