极地研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 56-65.DOI: 10.13679/j.jdyj.2017.1.056

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

南极大气CO2、CH4和N2O本底趋势特征分析

孙述蒙1,2, 郑向东1, 卞林根1   

  1. 1.中国气象科学研究院, 北京 100081
    2.成都信息工程大学, 四川 成都 610225
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-30 修回日期:2016-01-13 出版日期:2017-03-30 发布日期:2017-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 郑向东
  • 基金资助:

    南北极环境综合考察与评估专项(CHINARE2015-04-01)资助

Baseline trends of atmospheric CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations in Antarctica

Sun Shumeng1,2, Zheng Xiangdong1, Bian Lingen1   

  • Received:2015-09-30 Revised:2016-01-13 Online:2017-03-30 Published:2017-03-30
  • Contact: Xiang-dong ZHENG

摘要:

对南极大气温室气体CO2(含δ13C-CO2和δ18O-CO2)、CH4和N2O长期测值进行比较分析。结果表明, 南极是全球大气温室气体浓度(CO2稳定同位素丰度值)随纬度分布变化中的最低(高)区域。南极大气温室气体浓度值变化趋势、年增长率与全球整体上一致, 但在具体数值上存在差异。南极CO2平均年增长率(1958—2014年)为(1.43±0.59) mg·L–1·a–1, 低于同期赤道(1.51±0.72) mg·L–1·a–1, 但1980—2014年和2000— 2014年年增长率均高于南半球中纬度地区。δ13C-CO2和δ18O-CO2丰度趋势揭示了化石燃料排放和全球尺度过程对CO2的影响, 但南极是受影响最小的区域。1983—2014年南极CH4平均增长率为(6.2±4.9) µg·L–1·a–1, 低于北半球中纬度(6.5±5.6) µg·L–1·a–1而高于赤道(5.6±5.3) µg·L–1·a–1和南半球中纬度(6.1±4.9) µg·L–1·a–1, 这与CH4人为排放增强主要在北半球中纬度地区而显著被OH氧化在赤道和中纬度地区的事实是吻合的。南极N2O平均年增长率为(0.87±0.15) µg·L–1·a–1 (2005—2013年), 与南半球中纬度地区接近但低于北半球而高于赤道地区。

关键词: 南极, 温室气体(CO2、CH4、N2O), 年增速, 比较分析

Abstract:

The long-term baseline trends of the atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2 (including δ13C-CO2and δ18O-CO2 abundances), CH4, and N2O in Antarctica were compared with those from other latitudinal bands. The results suggest that global concentrations of GHGs increase with latitude from south to north, with the lowest (highest) abundance in Antarctica. The overall long-term trends and annual growth rates of GHGs in Antarctica are consistent with the global values, although the trends or growth rates of a concrete gas in Antarctica may quantitatively differentiate from the global values.  During 1958–2014, the average growth rate of CO2 concentration in Antarctica (1.43 ± 0.59) mg·L–1·a–1 was lower than that in the tropics (1.51 ± 0.72) mg·L–1·a–1. Conversely, the average growth rate of CO2 concentration in Antarctica during the periods 1980–2014 and 2000–2014 were higher than that in the Southern Hemisphere Middle (SHM) latitudinal band but lower than that in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The trends of δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 abundance reflect the effects of fossil fuel combustion and global-scale processes on global CO2  variations. During 1983–2014, the overall growth rate of CH4 concentration in Antarctica (1.43 ± 0.59) µg·L–1·a–1 was lower than that in the NH (6.5 ± 5.6) µg·L–1·a–1, but higher than that in the tropics (5.6 ± 5.3) µg·L–1·a–1 and the SHM (6.1 ± 4.9) µg·L–1·a–1. This confirmed the NH as the largest source of CH4, and the tropics and SHM as substantial CH4 sinks via OH oxidation. The overall average growth rate of atmospheric N2O in Antarctica was (0.87 ± 0.15) µg·L–1·a–1 during 2005–2013; lower (higher) than that in the NH (tropics) and very close to that in the SHM. The difference in the growth rate reflects anthropogenic emissions and the latitude-dependence of the vertical structure of the surface boundary layer, which has obvious influence on surface-level behavior of N2O.

Key words: Antarctica, greenhouse gases (GHGs, CO2, CH4, N2O), annual growth rate, comparison analysis