Climate change gives rise to the positive prospect of Arctic marine shipping and fisheries, both of which call for the timingly building of management regime. Confronted with similar problems stemming from Arctic environmental and political facts, Arctic shipping and fisheries management share some comparability. With a comparative study, it is found that Arctic shipping management has witnessed some highlights in its process of regime building, among which international cooperation is the key. The management regime is also matured by its evolution dynamics. International Maritime Organization acts as the coordinator in making “Pan-Arctic” shipping regulations, which facilitates a unified Arctic management system. These highlights will have some implications for Arctic fisheries management in terms of the philosophy and approach. The comparative study also reveals the challenges that Arctic fisheries management encounters, with A5’s unilateralism to seek stewardship as well as the current fragmentary fisheries magement as two primary challenges. To facilitate sustainable Arctic fisheries, international cooperation should be encouraged in the Arctic and beyond the Arctic, and a regional fisheries management organization should be established to coordinate international cooperation.