极地研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 279-285.DOI: 10.13679/j.jdyj.2017.2.279

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

北极地区国家在《联合国海洋法公约》下的权利义务及其与地理不利国家之间的关系

李雪平方正刘海燕2,3   

  1. 1. 武汉大学法学院国际法研究所, 湖北 武汉 430072
    2. 武汉大学南极测绘研究中心, 湖北 武汉 430072
    3. 国家领土主权与海洋权益协同创新中心, 湖北 武汉 430072
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-24 修回日期:2017-01-12 出版日期:2017-06-30 发布日期:2017-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 李雪平
  • 基金资助:

    2015年国家海洋局极地科学战略基金重点项目“《联合国海洋法公约》在北极地区的适用与中国的战略选择”资助

Rights and obligations of the Arctic states under the UNCLOS and their relations with geographically disadvantaged countries

Li Xueping1, Fang Zheng1, Liu Haiyan2,3   

  • Received:2016-10-24 Revised:2017-01-12 Online:2017-06-30 Published:2017-06-30
  • Contact: Xueping XuepingLi

摘要:

随着全球气候变暖, 北极地区丰富的自然资源和独特的地理区位使其战略价值一时凸显。环北极国家为了该地区丰富的自然资源和战略优势展开了一系列行动, 也产生了一系列争端。除了北极八国间存在着主权与主权权利的争端外, 各地理不利国家也纷纷依据《联合国海洋法公约》的相关规定主张其在北极地区应有的权利和利益, 由此加重了北极地缘政治关系的复杂性。鉴于现有的北极多边法律文件以及环北极国家行使主权的实践, 在“人类共同继承”原则下, 亟需澄清环北极国家在《联合国海洋法公约》下的权利义务, 进而协调好它们与包括中国在内的地理不利国家之间的关系。

关键词: 环北极国家, 地理不利国家, 《联合国海洋法公约》, 人类共同继承, 主权权利

Abstract:

As global warming intensifies, the abundant natural resources and unique geographical location of the Arctic emphasize its strategic importance. Actions taken by the circum-Arctic nations reflect this. In addition to existing disputes over sovereignty between these nations, geographically disadvantaged states are also claiming their rights and benefits according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and these exacerbate the complexity of Arctic geopolitics. According to existing multilateral legal documents, the practice of exercising sovereignty and the principle of the common inheritance of humanity, there is an urgent need to clarify the rights and obligations of circum-Arctic nations in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and to coordinate relationships between those countries and geographically disadvantaged states, including China.

Key words: circum-Arctic nations, geographically disadvantaged states, UNCLOS, common inherita¬nce of humanity, sovereignty right