On the basis of a brief introduction to the mass balance of the ice sheet and its effect on sea level, recent studies on the mass balance of Antarctic ice sheet were reviewed from two aspects, including integrated method and flux component method, and then the uncertainties affecting the mass balance were analyzed. A pattern of mass loss from Antarctica was indicated in the studies, and the mass loss near the Amundsen Sea Embayment in West Antarctic ice sheet was the most obvious. In addition, there was extensive dynamic thinning on many margins of the ice sheet. The mass loss of Antarctic ice sheet is the largest potential contributor to sea level rise. The ice shelf buttressing, the instability of the ice sheet and the function of subglacial meltwater are important to Antarctic mass balance. As observation techniques and data processing technology constantly improve in future, the mass balance estimates and the uncertainties which affect Antarctic ice sheet are expected to be further understood. Furthermore, more theoretical and technical supports will be provided to predict the range of sea level rise.